Парные знаки препинания. Скобки, имеющие сложную изогнутую форму. Фигурные скобки чаще всего употребляются в математических формулах, где они обычно объединяют группу формул или охватывают выражение, в котором уже были употреблены круглые или квадратные скобки.

Ball terminal

A circular form at the end of the arm in letters such as a, c, f, r and y. Examples: Bodoni, Scotch Roman, Clarendon, Basilia.


Horizontal line in the middle of H, A, e etc. See bar in letter 'e' on picture


The imaginary line on which the letters of a font sit. See baseline on this picture


A class ofblackletter types. Bastarda appeared in the 14th century as a chancery script. It is an intermediate form between Texturaand Rotunda. In Germany it was called Schwabacher (Schwabish script). Lowercase forms are relatively wide with small x-height and visible double break and have a lot of rounded shapes. Caps are wide and simple, with a lot of rounded shapes.


A sharp spur, found particularly on the f, and also often on a, c, j, r, and y in many 20th century Romans. (Examples: Perpetua, Pontifex, Ignatius.) Also the arm endings on F, E, T and the ending elements on C, S. It may be double or one-sided and vertical or slanted a little.

Bezier Curves

Mathematical equations used to describe the shapes of characters in digital fonts. The Bezier curve was named after Pierre Bezier (1910–99), a French scientist who developed the mathematical representation used to describe the curves. Type 1 fonts use cubic Bezier curves, whilst TrueType uses quadratic ones.


A bicameral alphabet has two alphabets joined. The Latin alphabet, which you are reading, is an example; it has an uppercase and lowercase. Unicameral alphabets (the Arabic and Hebrew alphabets) have only one case.


An array of pixels , used to create an image. The bits are mapped onto the screen or paper.

Bitmap font

Type of font format. A bitmap font describes each letter or symbol as rows of dots, which can quickly and easily be reproduced on a computer screen. However, when the font is enlarged, the dots simply become bigger, causing rough edges or 'jagging'. Bitmap fonts have now been mostly replaced by vector fonts.


A weight of a type. A blacker, heavier variation of a typeface, relative to the bold variation. Used for headlines and display matters.

Blackletter, Broken script

A general name for a wide variety of letterforms that stem from the north of Europe. Letterforms constructed with a broad-edged pen but emphasizing the transition points between the written strokes. Blackletters are generally tall, narrow, and pointed. In architecture, comparable to Gothic style. There are several classes of Blackletter (Textur, Rotunda, Bastarda, Schwabacher, Fraktur, Kanzlei). The first types of the 15th century were constructed after wide spread Blackletter scripts and later were used along with Romans until the 20th century. Now Blackletter is used mainly in display matters.
See also Blackletters in Classification section.


1. In metal type — the rectangle of metal on which the image of a character was cast.
2. In Photo or digital type — the rectangular notional space occupied by the letter.


A weight of a type. A blacker, heavier variation of a typeface, relative to the roman variation. Used for headlines and display matters. The first bold face was created ca. 1800 by London type founder Robert Thorne (1754–1820) as a singular type for poster and display setting. Bold faces were used for text emphasis since the end of the19th century.


A default weight of a type that is normally used for a body text. It is heavier then Light and lighter then Bold weights. Often referred to as Regular, Normal or Roman.


Ornament constructed of decorative units in the form of edging strip. Used for display matters.


An old name for type size of 9 points (~3,14 mm).


The generally round or elliptical forms which are the basic body shape of letters such as C, G, O in the uppercase, and b, c, e, o, p in the lowercase. Also called eye.


Braces are rarely required in texts, but they can function as an extra and outer set of parenthesis: {( [-] )}. Their primary use is marking mathematical phrases and sets. They also enclose a complete function in many programming languages.


A joining of a stem of a letter to a serif. This is also referred to as a fillet.


Square brackets are essentials of text typography, used for interpolations into quoted matter and as a secondary and inner set of parenthesis.


One of the upper accents symbolizing shortness. Used on vowels and consonants in Malay, Romanian, Turkish, Vietnamese and other languages. Also the breve is used in phonetic transcriptions to mark lax (‘short’) vowels. The breve is always rounded with the stress in the bottom.


An old name for type size of 8 points (~2,81 mm).


An old name for type size of 3 points (~1,05 mm). The smallest of all type sizes.


A mark used to set off items in a list, frequently a filled circle.