Raised cap

A design style in which the first capital letter of a paragraph is set in a large point size and aligned with the baseline of the first line of text. Compare to a Drop cap.

Raster element



The speed at which continuous text can be read. Also Legibility.

Reference mark


In digital typography, resolution is the fineness of the grain of the typeset image. It is usually measured in dots per inch (dpi). Laser printers, for example, generally have a resolution between 300 and 1000 dpi, and typesetting machines a resolution substantially greater than 1000 dpi. But other factors besides resolution affect the apparent roughness or fineness of the typeset image. These factors include the inherent design of the characters, the skill with which they are digitized, the hinting technology used to compensate for coarse rasterization, and the type of film or paper on which they are reproduced. In monitors, resolution is commonly measured by the number of pixels that can be displayed in a specified area. In either case, more pixels or dots mean a finer graphics image.


An adaptation – often regularized – of an existing typeface design for newer technology or methods of manufacture.


One of the upper accents used above vowel A in Danish, Norvegian and Swedish, and under vowel U in Czech, and in other languages.


An upright letter, as opposed to a sloped, or Italic, letter. The term also describes a style of type based upon Italian manuscript hands of the fifteenth century.

Roman capitals

The lapidary (stone-engraved) capital letters of Roman Empirean period (from the 1th century BC to the 5th century AD). Although the Roman alphabet took many forms, Capitalis Monumentalis (Roman capitals) have exerted the most influence on lettering and typographic developrment. Many versions of these exist, principally on inscriptions. The most famous example is on the column of Imperor Trajan in Roman Forum from 114 AD. There was no word spaces and words were divided by centerpoints.

Roman cursive

Roman cursive was a current hand written for daily use quickly and with little care, with pointed pen or stylus on papyrus or wax. The shapes of the letters were simplified and often joined, ascenders and descenders appeared, a minuscule-cursive was formed from the majuscule. Majuscule cursive called early Roman cursive, and minuscule one called later Roman cursive.

Roman numerals

The Roman numeral system, in which letters represent numbers, was dominant in Europe for nearly 2,000 years. Roman numerals are hard to manipulate, however, and mathematical calculations generally were done on an abacus. Over time the easier-to-use Arabic numbers replaced Roman numerals. Today Roman numerals are used to indicate dates on monuments and cornerstones and to organize outlines. They also may number the introductory pages of books and the hours on clocks and watches. Seven letters denote numbers in the Roman system: I = 1; V = 5; X = 10; L = 50; C = 100; D = 500; and M = 1,000. Either capital or small letters may be used. Repeating a symbol repeats its value: II = 2. A symbol is not used more than three times in a row: III = 3. When a symbol of lesser value follows one of greater value, the two are added: VI = 6. When a symbol of lesser value is placed before one of greater value, the lesser value is subtracted: IV = 4, XC = 90, CD = 400. Numbers involving 4 or 9 are always written by placing a symbol of lesser value before one of greater value: 24 = XXIV. A bar over a symbol signifies multiplication by 1,000.


A class of blackletter types. Gothic lettering in Italy was not carried to the final development of upwight broken shapes, and remained instead round and broad, and was named Rotunda. Lowercase are relatively wide with modest x-height and long extenders. Round letters have visible one break and a lot of rounded shapes. Caps are wide and simple, with many rounded shapes.


A line added to a page for emphasis or decoration.


Rustic capitals were written with a square-edged pen held at a strong and constant slant with a nearly vertical nib. To preserve space of document Rustic letters have narrow proportion.